Every week or month, we hear about many CRPF or paramilitary personnel being killed by Naxals. Recently 3 CRPF personnel were killed in a Maoist attack in Odisha’s Nuapada district. Naxalism is a big threat to the internal security of India, as of data 70 districts across 10 states are affected by Naxalite extremism, which are Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, MP, Maharastra, etc. Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha are fully affected, and others are partially affected. The Emergence of Naxalites is Biggest Challenge than China.
What is Naxalites?
It is a group of persons who believes that the Indian government is a semi-colonial, feudalistic, and imperial entity that needs to be overthrown. They are far-left radicals communist who rose with arms to safeguard peasants against landlords in post-independence.
History of Naxalites?
It started in 1950 as a peasant movement from a village Naxalbari, which is in West Bengal (Indo -Nepal border), but after 1967 Naxalbari uprising was led by Charu Majumdar, who was a head Naxal leader. We always divided Naxalism history into 3 phase
- 1960-1973(1st phase): in traditions, it was inspired by china’s cultural movement and mao’s tactics spread in Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal where they seized lands from landlords. It grew up under CPI(ML) leader Charu Majumdar. After the huge violence, he was arrested in 1972 by west Bengal police and died in custody.
- 1970-1994(second phase): violence reduced after the death of Charu Majumdar, but after some time, Naxal integrated into more than 40 smaller groups and increased the intensity of violence against paramilitary and police personnel, and spread out in Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, and Telangana. After this intensity of government, counter-insurgency operations increased, and it also increased violence. The government banned Naxalised political parties to contest the election.
- 2000-2015(third phase): violence increased between 2000 and 2011 because all the big Naxal groups came together and form a United front PEOPLE’S WAR GROUP(PWG). This group increased the intensity of violence against paramilitary and landlords and destroyed public properties like buildings, railway tracks, etc. At the end of 2005 capacity of Naxalites to conduct lethal attacks increased considerably because its influential power spread over 200 districts and financial powers reached up to 1500 cr. The Former Prime minister Mr. Manhoman Singh said, “Naxalism is the single biggest internal security challenge ever faced by our country.
Why The Emergence of Naxalites is increasing?
- Unemployment – government failed to give the job opportunities and the Naxal groups gives him money, as well as arms forest mismanagement problem, arise in the time of the British government and 1990s after the globalization government increased the exploitation of forests. Life became difficult for those who depended on the forest. They joined Naxal to get their forest rights.
- Poor implementation of land reforms gave their lands to landlords then they started their fight against the government with arms lack of industrialization and development in Naxals districts.
- absence of strong technical intelligence in these areas
- Confusion over tackling Naxalism as a social factor or a security threat – states always think that it is a matter of central government and not does nothing to combat Naxalism
Steps taken by Indian government to control The Emergence of Naxalites
- the center provides the resources like financial, technology, paramilitary forces, and strategic direction to the state Government to deal with Naxalism.
- the center uses a mixture of population-centric and enemy centric to deal with Naxalism.
- 14-point policy to combat Naxalism was 1st issued by UPA in 2006 and imposed a ban on CPI under the UAPA act.
- center appointed Dr. Bandhopadhyay committee to study the socio-economic situation of affected states and according to recommendation center provides the number of resources.
UPA launched IAP(integrated action plan) -which addresses the deficiencies in Naxal affected district
NDA stopped this plan and launched a new program, SCA (Special Center Assistance)
- Samadhan Scheme was launched in 2017. It provides the ways of good governance and development in Naxal-affected districts.
- SRE (Specially Released Expenditure) -the center provides special funds for development or reimburses expenditure in Naxal-affected states.
- It covers the ex-gratia payment of civilians and security personnel killed by Naxal
- It includes mobility, logistics, and communication expenses of central paramilitary and police force.
Naxalism is decreasing rapidly after the socio-economic development in Naxal areas and counter-insurgency operations by paramilitary forces. 90 districts of 10 states were affected in 2010 but are now reduced to 41 districts. So the development and educational programs will help people who live in Naxal areas to overcome Naxalism and live a better life.